This article provides a comprehensive understanding of the Ovarian Changes During Menstrual Cycle and Puberty. Read the article to learn about ovarian changes. The article includes:


The female reproductive system relies mainly on the ovaries. Which perform crucial duties such as regulating the menstrual cycle, creating key hormones like –> estrogen and progesterone, and releasing eggs for fertilization.

The ovarian changes during the menstrual cycle, puberty, pregnancy, and menopause. These changes include the development of cysts, tumors, and other abnormalities, as well as alterations in hormone production and ovarian function. Understanding these changes is critical for women to maintain optimal reproductive and overall health and to seek timely medical attention when necessary.

This article discusses the several ovarian changes that may occur throughout a woman’s life, as well as their origins, symptoms, and potential treatment options.

female reproductive system

Now let’s discuss different changes in ovaries

Different Changes in Ovaries

The ovaries undergo several changes throughout a woman’s life. During puberty, the ovaries become active and begin generating hormones. The ovaries gradually reduce in size and function as women age. which leads to menopause.

Different types of ovarian changes are as follows:

1. Ovarian Changes during Puberty

As part of the menstrual cycle, the ovaries begin to create and release eggs throughout adolescence. The hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and ovaries regulate this process. Which act together to control the amounts of hormones in the body. Such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are puberty hormones.

FSH stimulates the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries, each of which contains an immature egg. As the follicles grow, they produce increasing amounts of estrogen. Which helps to thicken the lining of the uterus in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

As the levels of estrogen in the body rise. They signal to the pituitary gland to release a surge of LH. Which triggers ovulation –> the release of a mature egg from the ovary into the fallopian tube. This usually occurs around day 14 of the menstrual cycle.

If sperm does not fertilize the egg. During menstruation, it dissolves and is shed along with the uterine lining. If the egg is fertilized. It will pass via the fallopian tube and implant in the uterus, where it will grow into a baby.

2. Ovarian Changes during the Menstrual Cycle

During the menstrual cycle, the ovaries and other reproductive organs go through changes. This cycle consists of three phases –> follicular phase, ovulatory phase, and luteal phase.


During the follicular phase. Which starts with the first day of menstruation. Hormones cause the growth of follicles in the ovaries. These follicles produce estrogen, which helps thicken the lining of the uterus.

Around day 14 of the cycle, the pituitary gland releases a hormone called LH. Which causes the release of a mature egg from the ovary. This is called ovulation.

After ovulation, the empty follicle becomes the corpus luteum. Which produces progesterone. This hormone further thickens the uterine lining. Which prepares it for the implantation of a fertilized egg.

If the egg is not fertilized, the corpus luteum breaks down, and the levels of progesterone and estrogen drop. This triggers the start of a new menstrual cycle.

3. Ovarian Changes During Pregnancy

Taking care of pregnant woman, the fetus relies on the ovaries for growth and development. Initially, the corpus luteum, a structure in the ovaries, produces progesterone. This hormone thickens the uterine lining and prevents miscarriage.


As the pregnancy progresses, the placenta assumes hormone production duties, specifically estrogen and progesterone. Consequently, the ovaries decrease in size and activity.

Hence, the ovaries play a crucial role in supporting the early stages of pregnancy. However, as the placenta takes over, their activity diminishes.

4. Ovarian Changes During Menopause

Menopause is a natural process where the ovaries gradually stop producing eggs and the hormone estrogen. It typically happens between ages 45 and 55, and it’s diagnosed when a woman hasn’t had a menstrual period for 12 months.

As the ovaries produce less estrogen, women may experience several symptoms such as –> hot flashes, night sweats, mood swings, vaginal dryness, and decreased sex drive. Some women may also experience difficulty sleeping, memory problems, and joint pain.

These symptoms can be managed with lifestyle changes and sometimes medication. Women need to talk to their healthcare providers to discuss their options and receive appropriate treatment.

How to care ovaries

While the ovaries are a vital part of the female reproductive system. There is no specific way to take care of them. However, there are certain steps that can be taken to maintain their overall reproductive health. Which can indirectly help support the health of their ovaries :

  1. Practice safe sex: Practice safe sex: This can help prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Which can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease. Which can damage the ovaries.
  2. Get regular check-ups: Regular gynecological check-ups can help detect any issues early on, allowing for prompt treatment.
  3. Maintain a healthy lifestyle: Eating a balanced diet, regular exercise, sufficient sleep, and stress management all contribute to supporting reproductive health.
  4. Don’t smoke: Smoking has been linked to a higher risk of infertility, early menopause, and other reproductive issues.
  5. Know your family history: Some conditions, such as ovarian cysts(Ovarian cysts are small, fluid-filled bags that can form in the ovaries, and may cause pain in the lower belly, changes in periods, and other symptoms). and certain types of ovarian cancer can run in families. Knowing your family history can help you and your healthcare provider take appropriate steps to monitor your health.
  6. Consider birth control: Birth control tablets can help regulate menstruation and lower the incidence of ovarian cysts.

It’s also essential for women to listen to their bodies. And seek medical attention if they experience any unusual symptoms. Such as pelvic pain, irregular periods, or abnormal vaginal bleeding. By taking care of their overall reproductive health. Women can help support the health of their ovaries and maintain their overall well-being.

Pelvic Pain: It refers to discomfort or pain felt in the lower abdomen or pelvis region. It can have various causes, including menstrual cramps, infections, or structural problems.


In summary, woman faces various ovarian changes. From the production of eggs during puberty to the cessation of egg production during menopause. These changes are essential for the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. Medical conditions may also impact individuals, necessitating medical intervention.

Women must be aware of these changes and how to care ovaries. Knowing the ovaries’ role can help women preserve reproductive health and overall well-being.

Further Reading

IntakeLearn provides high-quality study material for students and has a massive course structure on Pregnancy and Maternal Health Care. Thanks for reading this article. You can also read more informative articles: Physical Examination of a pregnant woman and how to take care of a pregnant woman.

For additional information visit other sources:

  1. Wikipedia:
  2. NIOH:


  1. Images used in this article are Designed by Freepik:
  2. CFCF, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
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1 Comment

Akshay Sharma · May 23, 2023 at 7:39 pm

Enjoyed reading the article about ovarian changes in woman, really explains everything in detail, the article is very interesting and effective. Thank you and good luck for the upcoming articles.

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