This article provides a comprehensive understanding of the period or menstrual cycle phases. Read the article to learn about the phases of the menstrual cycle. The article includes:


The female reproductive system undergoes a natural process known as the menstrual cycle. This complex physiological process involves the interaction of hormones, the brain, and the uterus. During the menstrual phase, the uterus sheds its lining. Which results in vaginal bleeding that typically lasts for 3 to 7 days. Let’s explore the concept of period or menstrual cycle phases in this article, such as its phases, duration, regulation, and common disorders.             


Phases of the Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle consists of four phases –> the menstrual phase, the follicular phase, the ovulatory phase, and the luteal phase. Each phase is characterized by specific hormonal changes and prepares the uterus for a potential pregnancy. Let’s discuss each phase :

Menstrual Phase

The menstrual phase is a natural process that happens to females every month. It is when the uterus sheds its lining through vaginal bleeding, which usually lasts from 3 to 7 days. This process occurs in females who are not pregnant and is a normal part of their reproductive cycle. It can cause discomfort and inconvenience for some women, but it is essential for their reproductive health.

Lining: The uterus sheds its lining means that. When a woman has her period, the tissue that lines inside of her uterus comes out of her body as blood.

stages of menstrual cycle

The menstrual phase is the start of a woman’s menstrual cycle when her body eliminates the uterine lining. This happens because the levels of hormones called estrogen and progesterone go down. These hormones help build up the lining of the uterus during the previous cycle. When they drop, the blood vessels in the uterus get smaller, and the lining comes out of the body as blood. This is what causes menstrual bleeding.

Follicular Phase

In the menstrual cycle, the follicular phase kicks off as soon as menstruation begins. It lasts until ovulation, during which the ovaries produce estrogen while their follicles mature. The hypothalamus, a brain part, releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), signaling the pituitary gland to secrete two more hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). FSH aids the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles (how to care ovaries) , while LH triggers the release of an egg from the ovary. With the maturing follicles, the production of estrogen increases, thickening the uterus lining for potential pregnancy.

Ovulatory Phase

The ovulatory phase is the time in a woman’s menstrual cycle when her body releases a developed egg from her ovary. This egg can subsequently migrate to the fallopian tube and be fertilized by sperm.

A hormone called LH (luteinizing hormone), which grows in the body 14 days before the upcoming menstrual cycle, causes ovulation. This surge in LH causes the mature follicle, which contains the egg, to burst and release the egg.

The ovulatory phase is the most fertile time of the menstrual cycle. It’s the best time to conceive a baby. If a sperm fertilizes the egg, pregnancy might start after the egg implants in the uterus.

Luteal Phase

The luteal phase is the time between ovulation and the start of your next period. During this time, a special part in your ovary called the corpus luteum makes a hormone called progesterone. Progesterone helps get your uterus ready for a baby and keeps care of pregnant mother. But if you don’t get pregnant, the corpus luteum goes away, and your hormones change, which causes your period to start again.

Now let’s explore the duration of the menstrual cycle

Duration of the Menstrual Cycle

Different women have varying menstrual cycle durations, which can be between 21 to 35 days. On average, a menstrual cycle lasts 28 days. The menstrual phase lasts between 3 to 7 days.

menstrual cycle

The complex interplay of hormones and other factors regulates the length of the menstrual cycle. The hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovaries, and uterus all play a part in menstrual cycle regulation.

Regulation of the Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle is controlled by a complex interaction of hormones regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary-gland.
Let’s know what you can do to feel better during your menstrual cycle

Many women feel uncomfortable during their period. But there are things you can do to feel better:

  1. Manage Pain: Period discomfort can be treated with pain medications such as ibuprofen, aspirin, or naproxen sodium. You may also use a heating pad or hot water bottle to help.
  2. Drink Water: Water can assist with bloating and constipation. Every day, drink at least eight glasses of water.
  3. Eat Healthy: Eating healthful foods can improve your mood. Increase intake of –> fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and omega-3 fatty acids. Avoid foods that are –> high in salt, sugar, or caffeine.
  4. Rest: You may be sleepy during your period. It’s important to get enough rest.
  5. Exercise: Puberty symptoms such as cramps and mood-swings might be reduced with exercise. Yoga, walking, and swimming are all good options.
  6. Stay Clean: It’s important to keep clean during your period. Change your pad or tampon regularly, and wash your hands before and after.
  7. Don’t Smoke: Smoking can make period symptoms worse.
  8. Avoid Alcohol and Caffeine: Alcohol and caffeine can also make symptoms worse. Try to avoid or limit them during your period.

Other Aspects of the Menstrual Cycle

Menstrual cycles are an important part of a girl’s reproductive system. It is the shedding of the uterus lining, which happens monthly. Menstrual cycles can be irregular, meaning they don’t happen every month, or they can be too heavy or too light. Irregular periods can be caused by several factors, including:

  1. Hormonal imbalances: Hormones such as estrogen and progesterone are important in controlling the menstrual cycle. Any imbalance in these hormones can lead to irregular periods.
  2. Weight fluctuations: Weight changes, whether it’s gaining or losing weight, can affect the menstrual cycle. Women with eating disorders or those who engage in excessive exercise are at higher risk of experiencing irregular periods.
  3. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): It’s a hormonal condition that affects the ovaries, causing –> irregular periods, acne, and weight gain.
  4. Stress: Mental and emotional stress can impact the menstrual cycle, leading to irregular periods.
  5. Thyroid disorders: Overactive or underactive thyroid can also affect the menstrual cycle.
  6. Overactive thyroid: It is also known as hyperthyroidism. It arises when the thyroid gland generates excessive amounts of thyroid hormone. Resulting in a variety of symptoms such as weight loss, fast pulse, and anxiety.
  7. Underactive thyroid: It is commonly known as hypothyroidism. It arises when the thyroid gland fails to generate enough thyroid hormone. Resulting in a variety of symptoms including fatigue, weight gain, and sadness.

If a girl is experiencing irregular periods. It’s important to seek medical advice. A doctor can determine the underlying cause and recommend treatment accordingly.

General Tips to Regulate the Menstrual Cycle Include

  1. Maintaining a healthy weight: A healthy weight may help with menstrual cycle control. If a female is underweight or overweight, her periods may be irregular.
  2. Eating a balanced diet: A diet high in – whole grains, fruits, and vegetables can aid in menstrual cycle regulation.
  3. Exercising regularly: Regular exercise can help regulate the menstrual cycle. However, excessive exercise can have the opposite effect.
  4. Managing stress: Stress can impact the menstrual cycle. Stress-relieving practices such as yoga, meditation, or deep breathing techniques might be beneficial.
  5. Hormonal contraceptives: Birth control pills, patches, and other hormonal contraceptives can regulate the menstrual cycle.


In conclusion, the period or menstrual cycle is a natural process that happens. When hormones, the brain, and the uterus interact. This cycle has four main phases, and its length differs from woman to woman. Hormones and other factors regulate it.
A lot of women go through discomfort during their period, but you can manage the symptoms and feel better by making small changes like eating healthy, drinking water, resting, and exercising. If you are experiencing serious symptoms, you should consult a doctor.

Further Reading

IntakeLearn provides high-quality study material for students and has a massive course structure on Pregnancy and Maternal Health Care. Thanks for reading this article. You can also read more informative articles: Physical Examination of a pregnant woman and how to take care of a pregnant woman.

For additional information visit other sources:

  1. Wikipedia:
  2. NIOH:


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1 Comment

Akshay Sharma · May 23, 2023 at 7:23 pm

I got to know the content of your article about menstrual cycle of women and your article skills are always good. Thank you for sharing this article. This content is very useful for me. I appreciate your efforts very much.

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